Monday, November 18, 2019

Ancient Indian History : General Facts about Indian rulers and historical periods

The Mauryan Empire (325 BC -183 BC)

Chandragupta Maurya : In 305 BC Chandragupta defeated Seleucus Nikator, who surrendered a vast territory.

Megasthenese was a Greek ambassador sent to the court of Chandragupta Maurya by Seleucus

Bindusara: Bindusara extended the kingdom further and conquered the south as far as Mysore

Asoka : (304–232 BCE)

Facts about Mauryas

During Mauryan rule, though there was banking system in India. yet usury was customary and the rate of interest was 15’/’ per annum on borrowing money. In less secure transactions (like sea Voyages etc) the rate of interest could be as high as 60  per annum.

During Mauryan period, the punch marked coins (mostly of silver) were the common units of transactions.

Megasthenes in his Indies had mentioned 7 castes in Mauryan society. They were philosophers, farmers, soldiers, herdsmen, artisans, magistrates and councilors.

The Age of the Guptas (320 AD-550 AD)

Chandragupta I 320 - 335 AD

Samudragupta 335-375 AD

Ramagupta 375 - 380 AD

Chandragupta Vikramaditya 380-413 AD

Kumargupta Mahendraditya 415-455 AD

Skandagupta 455-467 AD

Later Guptas : Purugupia, Narasimhagupta, Baladitya. Kumargupta II, Buddhagupta, Bhanugupta, Harshagupta, Damodargupta, Mahasenagupta

Literature : Authors and Book

Bhasa -Svapanavasavdattam

Shudrak -Mrichchakatika

Amarkosh -Amarsimha

Iswara Krishna -Sankhya Karika

Vatsyana -Kama Sutra

Vishnu (Gupta -Panchatantra

Narayan Pandit -Hitopdesha

Bhattin -Ravan Vadha

Bhaivi -Kiratarjunyam

Dandin -Daskumarachanta

Aryabhatta -Aryabhattyan

Vishakha Datta -Mudura Rakshasa

Indrabhuti -nanassiddhi

Varahamihara -Panchasiddh antika, Brihad Samhita

Kalidas : Kalidas wrote a number of such excellent dramas like Sakuntala, Malavikagnimitram, Vikrumorvasiyatn, epics like the Raghuvamsa, and lyric poetry like the Ritu-Samhara and the Meghaduta. II the best-known work of Kalidas is his drama Sakunatala

The Post-Gupta Period - Harshavardhana (606-647 AD)
Pallavas (560-903 AD)

There is controversy regarding the origin of Pallavas. Possibly the Pallavas were a local tribe who established their authority in the Tondamadu or the land of creepers.

They were orthodox Brahmanical Hindus and their capital was at Kanchi.

Both Chalukyas and Pallavas tried to establish their supremacy over land
between Krishna and Tungahhadra.

Pallava king Narshimhavarman (630-68 AD) occupied Chalukyan capital at Vatapi in about 642 AD and assumed the title Vatapikonda.

The Chola Empire (9th-12th Century)

The founder of Chola Dynasty was Vijayalaya, who was at first a feudatory of the Pallavas. He captured Tanjore in 850 AD.

The greatest Chola rulers were Rajaraja (985-1014 AD) and his son Rajendra I (1014-1044 AD).

Raja built a Saiya a temple of Rajarajeshwara at Tample .

Rajendra I assumec. the title ol Gangaikondachola and built a city called Gangaikondacholapuram)

The Chola Empire was divided into Mandalams or provinces and these in turn were divided into Valanadu and Nadu.

The arrangement of local self-government has been regarded as the basic feature of the administration of Cholas.

The style of architecture which came into vogue during this period is called Dravida e.g. Kailashnath temple of Kanchipuram.

Another aspect was image making which reached its climax in dancing figure of Shiva called Natraja.

Kambama who wrote Ramavatrama was one of the greatest figures of Tamil poetry. His Ramayana is known as Kamba Ramayana.

Pampa, Ponna and Ranna are considered as three gems of Kannada poetry
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